Manure production and handling techniques on industrial-scale livestock farms in the Baltic Sea Region
Manure handling techniques were studied on 31 large-scale livestock farms in the Baltic Sea Region using surveys and personal interviews. At least two dairy, two pig and one poultry farms in 6 countries were included in the study. Livestock density was lowest for dairy farms (around 1 LU ha-1), but five-fold greater for pig and poultry farms. Average manure production per farm was greatest for poultry farms followed by pig farms and then dairy farms. Manure on pig farms was handled as slurry, while poultry manure was handled mainly in solid form. On dairy farms 65% of total manure was handled as slurry and the remaining as solid. Manure processing was found on 22% of the farms most often as anaerobic digestion but two times as mechanical separation. Slurry was most often stored in tanks made of concrete panels and more than half of the storages were covered, most commonly with natural crusts. Mean slurry storage capacity was 7 months for dairy farms and almost 9.5 for pig farms (14 months including 2 farms with large lagoon storage systems). Slurry was mainly band-spread (84%) with application rates of 20 to 30 t ha-1. Farmers identified a range of bottlenecks for utilizing nutrients in manure including: 1) cost and economic factors, 2) technological limitations, 3) lack of knowledge and 4) regulations or lack of support mechanisms.
Sindhöj E., Kaasik A., Kuligowski K., Lazauskas S., Sipilä I., Tamm K., Vartukapteinis K. & Rodhe L., 2013. Manure production and handling techniques on industrial-scale livestock farms in the Baltic Sea Region. 15th RAMIRAN International Conference “Recycling of organic residues for agriculture: from waste management to ecosystem services” 3rd to the 5th of June 2013, Versailles, Frankrike. http://www.ramiran.net/doc13/Proceeding_2013/documents/S3.04..pdf
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